Keeping loss and gain of weight it’s simple math. However, to create the desired body it’s necessary that your diet meets your requirements. After reading this article, you’ll learn how to create a diet for weight loss or weight gain.
➜ How many calories do you need to eat?
Caloric needs are based on various subjective factors as age, sex, body composition (% of body fat, muscles), physiological condition, hormones,frequency of exercises, their nature, the intensity, the level of daily activity. The human body burns about 60% in the quiescent state, spending it on natural needs.
The number of calories burned in the quiescent state is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR). The more muscle, the more BMR, then, the more energy you spend in the quiescent state. Therefore, working on muscle mass will increase your ability to burn calories around the clock.
The rest of the energy body spends on physical activity (30%) and on the process of digestion (10%). So you can burn a lot more calories if you exercise regularly and eat small portions often.
To calculate the basal metabolic rate, use the formula of Harris-Benedict:
• Men: BMR = 66.47 + (13.75 x weight in kg) + (5.0 x height) – (6.75 x age)
• Women: BMR = 665.09 + (9.56 x weight in kg) + (1.84 x height) – (4.67 x age)
Once you know how many calories you burn, in the quiescent state, you need to calculate how much energy you spend exercising. BMR should be multiplied by the coefficient corresponding to your activity.
Activity factor is a lifestyle, not just a workout. Think about it. If you exercise for 1 hour, then what do you do the other 23 hours? Lifestyle includes work, sports, basic daily activities, etc.
• BMR x 1.2 – sedentary lifestyle;
• BMR x 1, 375 – little activity (30-50 minutes of slow walk. 3-4 times / wk., Housework, light exercise);
• BMR x 1.55 – moderate load 3-5 days / week. (60-70% MHR 30-60 min.);
• BMR x 1.725 – active lifestyle (stress of high intensity 70-85% MHR 45-60 min. 6-7 days / wk.);
• BMR x 1.9 – for very active people, workers hard physical labor, professional athletes (load more than 90 minutes, 6-7 days / wk.).
➜ There is a simple way to calculate daily caloric intake:
• Normally, healthy people who lead a sedentary lifestyle, it is recommended to consume 26-30 kcal / 1 kg of body weight.
• People leading moderately active lifestyle (light load 3-5 times / week.) – 31-37 kcal / 1 kg.
• For those who lead an active lifestyle, it is recommended 38-40 kcal / 1 kg of body weight.
• Athletes who are under physical activity ( from moderate to severe) 15-20 hours per week, it is recommended to consume 41-50 kcal / kg.
• Professional athletes who’s training can be described as extremely heavy, should consume 50 kcal per 1 kg of body weight.
These numbers must be calculated in accordance with the purposes, for example, weight keeping, weight loss or weight gain.
• Keeping weight: it is necessary to eat in accordance with the activity.
• Gain weight: you have to add to the number you’ve already got 10-20%.
• Weight loss: you should subtract 10-20%.
You should monitor the results and change them, if needed.
➜ proteins, fats, carbohydrates (PFC)
Once you determine how many calories you need to lose or gain weight, you need to figure out how much protein, carbohydrates and fats your body needs.
The calculation should be done on the basis of the required number of PFC/1 kg of body weight.
➜ How much protein should be eaten?
According to a number of clinical studies, the general recommendations for people consuming enough calories, are following:
• Weightlifting training – 1.4-2 g / kg of body weight;
• Physical exercises – 1.2-1.8 g / kg of body weight;
• Teens – 1.8-2.2 g / kg of body weight.
Excessive protein intake overload kidneys, liver, leads to the accumulation of toxins. If there are no medical contraindications for receiving the protein, then there is no need to reduce it’s consumption.
➜ Fats for weight loss and weight set
Fats are the sole source of linoleic acid required for the regeneration of skin, hair growth, strength of the teeth and it protects organs from injury of supercooling. They are needed to support the hormonal system. In addition, fats are involved in the absorption and transportation of fat-soluble vitamins.
➜ Fats are sources of fatty acids and are divided into two categories:
• Unsaturated (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated).
Saturated are fats from animal sources. They retain hardness at room temperature. Unsaturated fats are vegetable sources. They reduce blood cholesterol and saturated fats, on the contrary, increase it.
➜ How much fat should be eaten?
• Low or medium% of body fat – 2.1 g / kg of total mass;
• High fat% – 2.1 g / kg of lean body mass.
➜ carbohydrates for weight loss and weight gain
Carbohydrates such as starch or sugar, are most available source of energy. During digestion all carbohydrates are degraded into glucose, which the body uses as a primary energy source. It accumulates in the liver and in muscle tissue as glycogen. Carbohydrates are essential for people wanting to lose weight or gain weight because they are the fuel for most exercises.
➜ How many carbohydrates should be eaten?
There are no specific requirements for this macronutrient, however it is important for people doing exercises. Carbohydrates are essential for high-quality training, health and sanity (brain consumes more than 300 kcal of them).
Mid-active lifestyle – 4.5-6.5 g / kg of body weight;
Active lifestyle – 6.5-8.5 g / kg of body weight;
Maximally active lifestyle – 8.5 g / kg.
For usual average people it is recommended to calculate the rate of carbohydrates by calculating the calories from total calories of protein and fat.
P: 1 gram – 4 kcal;
F: 1 gram – 9 calories;
C: 1 gram – 4 kcal.
The amount of protein in grams multiply by 4, and fat – by 9. Add the results, subtract the sum from the daily energy intake, and then divide by 4. So you’ll know how many carbohydrates your body needs.